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Rethinking Exams in the Age of Chatbots

Today's experiment explores the potential of ChatGPT to assist me in the realm of exams, particularly within my field of teaching, Business Analysis.

Can ChatGPT create a question for an exam? Indeed, it can do even more! In the experiment below, ChatGPT showcases (to varying extents) its ability to not only generate an exam question but also to engage in several related tasks:

  1. Generate a difficult critical question
  2. Solve the question
  3. Critically evaluate the solution (its own solution!)
  4. Attribute a mark between 1 and 6
  5. Attribute a severe mark between 1 and 6
  6. Defend a mark
  7. Refute a mark
  8. Generate a variation of the question which is difficult to solve
  9. Generate a variation of the question which is even more difficult to solve
  10. Give a correction scale with marks from 1 to 6 

The impact of AI and chatbots like ChatGPT impact on university exams is becoming increasingly evident. Students and teachers alike are beginning to discover these tools, questioning their potential to generate, correct, and score exams. In light of this transformation, it is urgent that we reconsider the nature of exams and their place in education.

The question discussed involves how AI and chatbots can transform the way we conduct exams at universities and the implications of this change for students, teachers, and the education system as a whole. AI has the potential to bring significant benefits to the assessment process, enhancing efficiency by automating administrative tasks and reducing human error, leading to more accurate and fair evaluations. Personalized learning experiences and adaptive assessments can also help reduce the stress associated with traditional exams and create a more inclusive and equitable learning environment for all students.

AI-driven tools like ChatGPT can support the development of innovative assessment methods that focus on problem-solving, critical thinking, and interdisciplinary learning. By shifting away from rote memorization, these new methods can better prepare students for the challenges of the modern workforce and promote lifelong learning. 

Despite these potential advantages, I see concerns about the ethical implications of AI in education, particularly regarding the preservation of human values and the potential exacerbation of existing inequalities. While AI can streamline the assessment process, it is essential to maintain the role of human educators in evaluating students' work and providing meaningful feedback. Additionally,  there is a clear  need for careful management of AI implementation to ensure ethical guidelines are followed and that access to AI-based solutions is equitable.

I believe that AI and chatbots like ChatGPT have already begun to radically transform the context and conditions of exams. As students and teachers embrace these tools, we must urgently rethink the way we do exams, and we must do so now. 

This post has been cowritten with ChatGPT. Please beware that AI is fascinating and can catch your full attention for hours. Get the balance right! > more?


The experiment: 

(1)

Please generate an example of a difficult critical question in the field of Stakeholder Analysis for digitalisation in tourism targeting undergraduate students which involves a hypothetical scenario.

(ChatGPT-4)

Question: 

Imagine that a popular tourist destination, Xville, is planning to implement a digital transformation project aimed at enhancing the overall tourist experience. The project includes the development of a mobile app that offers real-time updates on local attractions, personalized recommendations, seamless bookings, and augmented reality features. The app will be powered by AI algorithms that analyze user data to provide tailored experiences.

As an undergraduate student studying stakeholder analysis, critically examine the potential ethical implications of this digital transformation project on different stakeholder groups. Consider the following hypothetical scenario:

During the implementation process, a data breach occurs, compromising the personal information of thousands of tourists who used the app. This leads to negative publicity and a loss of trust in the destination's ability to protect user privacy. Additionally, the AI algorithms behind the app generate biased recommendations, prioritizing attractions that have partnered with the app's developers, causing smaller, local businesses to struggle.

In light of this scenario, discuss the following:

  • Identify and analyze the key stakeholders involved in this digital transformation project, and examine how their interests and concerns might be affected by the data breach and biased recommendations.
  • Evaluate the potential ethical dilemmas that may arise for each stakeholder group as a result of the data breach and biased recommendations, and discuss how these dilemmas could impact the long-term success of the digital transformation project.
  • Propose potential strategies that Xville's local government and the app's developers could adopt to address these ethical concerns and mitigate potential negative consequences for the various stakeholders involved.

(2)

Please solve the above question.

Key stakeholders and their interests and concerns:

a) Tourists: Their primary interests are convenience, personalized experiences, and data privacy. They are concerned about the data breach and the biased recommendations that may not provide an authentic experience of Xville.

b) Local businesses: Their interests lie in attracting customers and fair competition. They are concerned about the biased recommendations that favor partner attractions, leading to an uneven playing field and potentially harming their businesses.

c) App developers: Their interests include creating a successful app that generates revenue and maintains a good reputation. They are concerned about the data breach's impact on their reputation, as well as the backlash from the biased recommendations.

d) Partner attractions: They seek increased visibility and revenue through the app. They might be concerned about the negative publicity from the data breach and the potential backlash against the biased recommendations.

e) Xville's local government: They aim to promote tourism and ensure a positive experience for tourists while supporting local businesses. They are concerned about the negative publicity from the data breach and the impact of the biased recommendations on local businesses and the overall tourist experience.

Ethical dilemmas:

a) Tourists: Balancing personalized experiences with data privacy and ensuring fair representation of local attractions.

b) Local businesses: Ensuring fair competition and equal opportunities in the face of biased recommendations that favor partner attractions.

c) App developers: Addressing the data breach, maintaining user trust, and addressing the ethical concerns of biased recommendations.

d) Partner attractions: Navigating potential backlash from tourists and local businesses due to biased recommendations.

e) Xville's local government: Ensuring the protection of user data, promoting fairness for local businesses, and maintaining a positive tourist experience.

Potential strategies to address ethical concerns:

a) Strengthen data security: The app developers and Xville's local government should invest in enhancing data security measures to prevent future breaches and restore user trust.

b) Review AI algorithms: The app developers should re-evaluate the AI algorithms to eliminate biased recommendations and ensure a fair representation of local attractions. This may involve implementing transparency measures and seeking external audits to confirm fairness.

c) Collaboration with local businesses: The app developers and Xville's local government should work closely with local businesses to address their concerns and create opportunities for fair representation on the app.

d) Establish a code of ethics: The app developers should establish a code of ethics that guides their decision-making and includes measures to prevent biased recommendations.

e) Continuous monitoring and evaluation: Xville's local government and the app developers should implement regular monitoring and evaluation processes to identify potential ethical issues and address them proactively.

By adopting these strategies, Xville's local government and the app's developers can work towards addressing ethical concerns and ensuring a positive experience for tourists while supporting local businesses.

(3)

Can you please critically evaluate this solution to the question above, listing its strengths and weaknesses as well as suggestions for improvement?

Strengths:

Comprehensive stakeholder identification: The solution effectively identifies key stakeholders and their interests and concerns, providing a solid foundation for analyzing the situation.

Recognition of ethical dilemmas: The solution acknowledges the ethical dilemmas faced by each stakeholder group, emphasizing the importance of addressing these issues for the long-term success of the project.

Multi-faceted strategies: The proposed strategies address multiple aspects of the problem, including data security, algorithmic fairness, collaboration with local businesses, ethical guidelines, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation.

Weaknesses:

Lack of specific measures: The solution provides general strategies but lacks specific actions that could be taken by the stakeholders to address the ethical concerns. For example, the suggestion to strengthen data security could be enhanced by recommending specific security protocols or practices.

Limited consideration of alternative solutions: The solution does not explore alternative approaches to digital transformation in tourism or discuss the potential merits and drawbacks of different models (e.g., decentralized or community-driven platforms).

Insufficient focus on stakeholder engagement: Although collaboration with local businesses is mentioned, the solution could elaborate on how to effectively engage stakeholders in the decision-making process and foster a sense of shared ownership and responsibility.

Suggestions for improvement:

Provide specific actions: To make the strategies more actionable, the solution could suggest specific measures, such as adopting a particular data encryption standard or implementing a third-party audit of the AI algorithms.

Explore alternative models: The solution could discuss alternative digital transformation models and how they might address some of the ethical concerns, such as community-driven platforms that empower local businesses to contribute to the app's content and decision-making processes.

Enhance stakeholder engagement: The solution could elaborate on ways to engage stakeholders more effectively, such as by creating a stakeholder advisory board, organizing workshops or focus groups, and establishing regular communication channels for feedback and updates.

Consider potential trade-offs: The solution could discuss potential trade-offs between addressing ethical concerns and achieving other project objectives (e.g., balancing data privacy with personalized recommendations), and propose strategies for navigating these trade-offs.

By addressing these weaknesses and incorporating the suggested improvements, the solution would provide a more comprehensive and actionable analysis of the ethical concerns associated with the digital transformation project in Xville.

(4)

Based on the question, the solution and this critical evaluation of the solution above, please give a mark for the answer on a scale from 1 to 6.

Considering the question, the solution, and the critical evaluation of the solution, I would give the answer a mark of 4.5 out of 6.

The solution demonstrates a good understanding of the stakeholder analysis concept and the ethical implications of the given scenario. It identifies key stakeholders and their concerns, acknowledges ethical dilemmas, and proposes strategies to address these concerns. However, as the critical evaluation pointed out, the solution could be improved by providing more specific actions, exploring alternative models, enhancing stakeholder engagement, and discussing potential trade-offs. These improvements would make the solution more comprehensive and actionable, which would increase the overall mark.

(5)

Based on the question, the solution and this critical evaluation of the solution above, please give a severe mark for the answer on a scale from 1 to 6.

Taking into account the question, the solution, and the critical evaluation of the solution, and assuming a more severe grading approach, I would give the answer a mark of 3 out of 6.

The solution does demonstrate an understanding of the stakeholder analysis concept and the ethical implications of the given scenario. It identifies key stakeholders and their concerns and proposes strategies to address these concerns. However, as the critical evaluation pointed out, the solution falls short in terms of providing specific actions, exploring alternative models, enhancing stakeholder engagement, and discussing potential trade-offs. These shortcomings limit the comprehensiveness and actionability of the solution, which has led to the lower mark under a severe grading approach.

(6)

As a teacher, I have been critised by my colleagues to be too tolerant with a mark of 4.5 given for the solution to the question above. Can you please give me some arguments why this is not the case?

As a teacher, it is essential to maintain a balance between being supportive and challenging when evaluating student work. A mark of 4.5 out of 6 for the solution provided can be justified for several reasons:

Demonstrated understanding: The solution displays a solid understanding of stakeholder analysis and the ethical implications in the given scenario. The ability to identify key stakeholders, their interests, and concerns is a crucial skill in this field and indicates a strong grasp of the core concepts.

Acknowledging ethical dilemmas: The solution recognizes and addresses the ethical dilemmas faced by each stakeholder group, which is an essential aspect of stakeholder analysis. This demonstrates the student's ability to think critically about the situation and consider the broader implications of the digital transformation project.

Well-structured approach: The solution follows a logical and organized approach, outlining stakeholder concerns, ethical dilemmas, and potential strategies to address the issues. This indicates the student's ability to synthesize information and communicate their thoughts effectively.

Encouraging improvement: A mark of 4.5 is still below the maximum score, indicating that there is room for improvement. By providing constructive feedback and identifying areas where the solution could be strengthened, you are encouraging the student to further develop their skills and strive for excellence.

It is important to recognize the strengths of the solution and the student's demonstrated understanding of the subject matter. While there may be areas for improvement, a mark of 4.5 acknowledges the effort and thought put into the response, and it encourages the student to continue refining their analytical skills in stakeholder analysis.

(7)

As a teacher, I have been critised by my colleagues to be too tolerant with a mark of 4.5 given for the solution to the question above. Can you please give me some arguments why my colleagues might be right?

Your colleagues might argue that the mark of 4.5 out of 6 is too lenient for the solution provided, based on the following reasons:

Lack of specific measures: The solution provides general strategies, but it lacks specific actions that could be taken by the stakeholders to address the ethical concerns. This might indicate that the student has not delved deeply enough into the subject matter to provide actionable insights.

Limited exploration of alternatives: The solution does not consider alternative approaches to digital transformation in tourism or discuss the potential merits and drawbacks of different models. This may suggest that the student has not fully explored the topic or demonstrated the ability to think critically and creatively about possible solutions.

Insufficient focus on stakeholder engagement: Although the solution mentions collaboration with local businesses, it does not provide a detailed explanation of how to engage stakeholders effectively or foster a sense of shared ownership and responsibility. This omission may reflect a lack of depth in the student's understanding of stakeholder analysis.

Potential for higher standards: By assigning a higher mark, you might inadvertently set a lower standard for future work, which could hinder the development of the student's skills. Encouraging students to strive for excellence and providing constructive feedback on areas of improvement can be more beneficial for their growth.

Comparability with peers: If your colleagues follow a stricter grading approach, the mark of 4.5 might not accurately reflect the student's performance relative to their peers. Ensuring consistency in grading across the faculty can help maintain fairness and avoid confusion for the students.

While it is important to recognize the strengths of the solution, your colleagues might argue that a lower mark would better reflect the areas for improvement and encourage the student to further develop their skills in stakeholder analysis.

(8)

Can you please give a modified version of the question above which is more difficult to answer?

Imagine that a popular tourist destination, Xville, is planning to implement a digital transformation project aimed at enhancing the overall tourist experience. The project includes the development of a mobile app that offers real-time updates on local attractions, personalized recommendations, seamless bookings, and augmented reality features. The app will be powered by AI algorithms that analyze user data to provide tailored experiences.

As an undergraduate student studying stakeholder analysis, critically examine the potential ethical implications of this digital transformation project on different stakeholder groups in a global context. Consider the following hypothetical scenario:

During the implementation process, a data breach occurs, compromising the personal information of thousands of tourists who used the app, including sensitive financial data. This leads to negative publicity and a loss of trust in the destination's ability to protect user privacy. Additionally, the AI algorithms behind the app generate biased recommendations, prioritizing attractions that have partnered with the app's developers, causing smaller, local businesses to struggle. Furthermore, there are concerns about the app's impact on the environment due to increased tourism and the app's lack of accessibility for certain demographics.

In light of this scenario, discuss the following:

  • Identify and analyze the key stakeholders involved in this digital transformation project, and examine how their interests and concerns might be affected by the data breach, biased recommendations, environmental impact, and accessibility issues.
  • Evaluate the potential ethical dilemmas that may arise for each stakeholder group as a result of the data breach, biased recommendations, environmental impact, and accessibility issues. Discuss how these dilemmas could impact the long-term success and sustainability of the digital transformation project.
  • Propose potential strategies that Xville's local government and the app's developers could adopt to address these ethical concerns while taking into account the interests of diverse stakeholders across different countries and cultures, and the global implications of increased digitalization in tourism. Consider the potential trade-offs between addressing ethical concerns and achieving other project objectives.
  • Analyze the potential consequences of not addressing these ethical concerns on the destination's reputation, the competitiveness of local businesses, and the sustainability of the tourism industry in Xville in the context of a globalized world.

(9)

Can you please provide a modified version of the initial question above which would be difficult to solve even for post-graduate students?

Imagine that a popular tourist destination, Xville, is planning to implement a digital transformation project aimed at enhancing the overall tourist experience. The project includes the development of a mobile app that offers real-time updates on local attractions, personalized recommendations, seamless bookings, and augmented reality features. The app will be powered by AI algorithms that analyze user data to provide tailored experiences.

As a postgraduate student studying stakeholder analysis, critically examine the potential ethical implications and unintended consequences of this digital transformation project on different stakeholder groups within a rapidly evolving global tourism landscape. Consider the following hypothetical scenario:

During the implementation process, a data breach occurs, compromising the personal information of thousands of tourists who used the app, including sensitive financial data. This leads to negative publicity and a loss of trust in the destination's ability to protect user privacy. Additionally, the AI algorithms behind the app generate biased recommendations, prioritizing attractions that have partnered with the app's developers, causing smaller, local businesses to struggle. Furthermore, there are concerns about the app's impact on the environment due to increased tourism, cultural implications, and the app's lack of accessibility for certain demographics, as well as its potential to exacerbate socio-economic disparities.

In light of this scenario, discuss the following:

  • Identify and analyze the key stakeholders involved in this digital transformation project, and critically examine the complex interdependencies among their interests and concerns, which might be affected by the data breach, biased recommendations, environmental impact, cultural implications, and accessibility issues.
  • Evaluate the potential ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences that may arise for each stakeholder group as a result of the data breach, biased recommendations, environmental impact, cultural implications, and accessibility issues. Discuss how these dilemmas and consequences could impact the long-term success, sustainability, and resilience of the digital transformation project within a global and interconnected tourism industry.
  • Drawing from interdisciplinary perspectives (e.g., economics, sociology, anthropology, environmental studies), propose innovative and context-sensitive strategies that Xville's local government and the app's developers could adopt to address these ethical concerns and unintended consequences. Consider the potential trade-offs between addressing ethical concerns, respecting cultural diversity, and achieving other project objectives, while taking into account the interests of diverse stakeholders across different countries and cultures, and the broader implications of increased digitalization in tourism.
  • Analyze the potential consequences of not addressing these ethical concerns and unintended consequences on the destination's reputation, the competitiveness of local businesses, the sustainability and resilience of the tourism industry in Xville, and the broader social and cultural fabric of the destination in the context of a globalized world. Reflect on the ethical responsibilities of tourism stakeholders in shaping the future of the industry in a way that is inclusive, equitable, and sustainable.

(10)

Can you please give a correction scale with marks from 1 to 6 for this question to post-graduate students and list 3 elements that an answer should at least contain for each different mark?

1 - Unsatisfactory:

a. Fails to identify key stakeholders and their concerns.

b. No analysis of ethical dilemmas or unintended consequences.

c. No strategies proposed or consideration of trade-offs.


2 - Poor:

a. Limited identification of key stakeholders and their concerns.

b. Minimal analysis of ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences.

c. Few strategies proposed, with little consideration of trade-offs and interdisciplinary perspectives.


3 - Satisfactory:

a. Identifies key stakeholders and their concerns, but lacks depth in examining their interdependencies.

b. Basic analysis of ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences, with limited exploration of their impact on the project's success and sustainability.

c. Proposes some strategies, but lacks innovation, context-sensitivity, or consideration of trade-offs and interdisciplinary perspectives.


4 - Good:

a. Identifies key stakeholders and their concerns, with some examination of their interdependencies.

b. Provides a thorough analysis of ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences, and discusses their impact on the project's success and sustainability.

c. Proposes several innovative and context-sensitive strategies, with some consideration of trade-offs and interdisciplinary perspectives.


5 - Very Good:

a. Comprehensive identification of key stakeholders and their concerns, with a clear analysis of their interdependencies.

b. In-depth analysis of ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences, with a strong focus on the project's long-term success, sustainability, and resilience.

c. Proposes a range of innovative and context-sensitive strategies, with a thoughtful consideration of trade-offs, interdisciplinary perspectives, and diverse stakeholder interests.


6 - Excellent:

a. Exceptional identification of key stakeholders and their concerns, with a nuanced and critical examination of their interdependencies within the global tourism landscape.

b. Comprehensive and insightful analysis of ethical dilemmas and unintended consequences, with a strong emphasis on the project's long-term success, sustainability, resilience, and broader social and cultural implications.

c. Proposes a well-argued set of innovative and context-sensitive strategies, with a thorough consideration of trade-offs, interdisciplinary perspectives, diverse stakeholder interests, and the ethical responsibilities of tourism stakeholders in shaping the industry's futur


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